The Final Farewell to Dad

picture of me, Debby Bloom and my father, Sam Bloomat the end of an extended life, it seems to be a purpose in maximum households to get to the demise earlier than they take their final breath. without a doubt, “just” earlier than a person dies. final thoughts, farewells, preferred recollections, going through old images together—all eco friendly, reminders of a life

through old images together—all eco friendly, reminders of a life well lived. retain analyzing →percentage this:SharePinterestFacebookTwitterEmailLike this:Like Loading…

Naturally Fresh Laundry

i have surely simply currently commenced exploring ways to make my own cleaning merchandise. by some means it in no way regarded as important as what you placed immediately to your pores and skin. but, when you think about it, what you smooth your private home with is what you’re setting in your skin

you breathe, and all eco friendly laundry detergent, the chemical substances you surround yourself get rather absorbed into your frame and blood.the problem i have with shopping for pre-made herbal cleansing merchandise is threefold: 1. They’re greater luxurious, 2. They don’t work as well, three. most of them aren’t without a doubt any much less poisonous
make their cleansing merchandise on pinnacle of it?The under recipe is one that changed into sitting on my to-do list, however took me a long time to without a doubt get around to making. Laundry might be my least favored chore; it takes just so long and it’s by no means definitely
7th generation detergent instead. sadly, after a few washes, jogging shirts still smelled strongly like sweat and our different garments weren’t smelling lots better. My gentleman caller turned into approximately equipped to surrender and switch again to Tide, however I said stood heroically in the front of laundry aisle, waving my fingers, and announcing that, “there may be a better way! We do not want to succumb to the strength
substances! permit me to show myself, and if you aren’t happy with my advent, i can gladly step aside and allow you to shop for the laundry detergent of your desire.” Then he said something alongside the lines of, “cool”, and my DIY laundry detergent test commenced.especially, it turned into in reality smooth. It takes no more time than watching an episode of The every day display, and also you received’t even should watch the
watch the interview!The Recipe– 1 cup borax (observed in laundry aisle)– 1 cup washing soda (discovered in laundry aisle)– 1 bar of cleaning soap (4.5 – five oz.) (i hope you may locate this to your very own)instructions1. locate some thing to keep your detergent. (I used an vintage coffee can)2. positioned within the borax and washing soda and stir them collectively.3. Grate your cleaning soap

to be a trouble, however it without a doubt only took a couple of minutes. The soap grates very without difficulty.four. mix the whole thing collectively very well, for about five minutes.five. Use one to 2 tablespoons in step with load.So, does it paintings? For the most part, sure. It changed into
too a long way gone to be stored, but despite the fact that our clothes were virtually cleaner, they nevertheless had a bit bit of a smell.the second time we used the detergent, I threw a few white vinegar into the softener compartment. It clearly helped. Now, with the above detergent and the vinegar-softener, our
possibly clearly degree how a great deal vinegar I installed. I form of simply pour, however it’s probably about 1/4-half cup per load. i might suggest using a bit extra for towels. also, we go to a laundromat and simply positioned the white vinegar directly into the softener compartment, but if you have a
detergent elements, well, I wouldn’t endorse eating any of them, however I nevertheless trust that they’re secure for our laundry. Many human beings have issue with the use of borax, however as some distance as i will tell any threat from borax comes from eating it, or even then it doesn’t appear to be that rather more dangerous than baking soda.
sense approximately it, however in my view it’s still better than the usage of the opportunity. Washing soda is just baked baking soda. you can make it yourself, but as it’s quite reasonably-priced to shop for, I didn’t hassle. And cleaning soap, properly, is cleaning soap.I’d show you what the final product looks like, however I assume what white powder looks like and that i don’t
residence to see if i have anthrax (or perhaps I didn’t actually make a new batch for this access) so right here’s a image of the can instead! Hoorah, detergent.

Promote Your Business This Earth Day

Earth Day is simply across the nook, and Graphcoline has the , promotional merchandise you want to exhibit your commercial enterprise! phrases like “sustainability” and “” can clearly look like buzzwords these days but knowledge why sustainable and merchandise are important will assist your enterprise better provider your customers’ alternatives and earth maintain to grow to be more and more polluted, it’s far vital to offer your customers products that support and defend our earth.

 At Graphcoline, we use recycled cardboard, bamboo, and other materials that without difficulty wreck down for all our merchandise.

right here are some of our satisfactory-selling merchandise with a purpose to promote your commercial enterprise & Earth Day!FR1 – 9 1/four” FLYING DISC This eco-conscious flying disc is biodegradable, promote your commercial enterprise & Earth Day!FR1 – 9 1/four” FLYING DISC This eco-conscious flying disc is biodegradable, recyclable, and freed from BPA & lead. it’s miles ideal for selling environmental attention and green agencies! This flying disc measures 9 1/four″ and makes an ideal marketing gift. Recipients will revel in they play in public regions. clearly personalize it and watch your brand fly! FR1 – nine 1/four” FLYING DIS FR25 – 25 oz FREEDOM BOTTLE Our Freedom Bottle is your next hydration sidekick! This 25 ounces. bottle is , biodegradable, recyclable, and free of BPA & lead.

This comes in a ramification of cutting-edge colours and for taking to the health club or college or sipping on during the workday. it is able to be custom designed via including a medical institution, business enterprise, agency logo, slogan, message, or advertising design. Sip to your preferred beverage with this ultra-modern water bottle! FR25 – 25 ounces FREEDOM BOTTLE PCUP – 16OZ DOUBLE WALL party CUP help the planet with each sip! This , CUP help the planet with each sip! This , sixteen oz. double-wall, insulated party cup continues your liquids colder longer. it is biodegradable, recyclable, and free of both BPA and lead, and it’s miles exquisite for the house, the office, or a laugh occasions like company cookouts, picnics, gala’s, parades, and more.

Customize this cup by using  deciding on from an expansion of colors to showcase your company, college, charity emblem, or advertising message. clients will love helping your logo with this party cup! PCUP – 16OZ DOUBLE WALL birthday party CUP RBCK – RECYCLED note book deliver the present that continues on writing by marketing with this contemporary carboard notebook with a pen! This recycled cardboard notebook it a remarkable manner to herald new business while additionally showcasing This recycled cardboard notebook it a remarkable manner to herald new business while additionally showcasing your guide for sustainable, products.

This pocket book is constructed out of recycled cardboard and functions 60 sheets of white covered paper, and the matching click-action pen is likewise recycled. this is the precise present for campaigns, and other green reasons, and you can add a charity, organization message, promotional layout to the cover of this notebook! RBCK – RECYCLED pocket book SP20 – TRANSLUCENT 20 oz. recreation BOTTLE Refresh your visitors and the Earth every day! This 20 ounces. game bottle measures about 7.75″ tall and comes in a diffusion of translucent hues.

Designed to be biodegradable, recyclable, and freed from each BPA and lead, you can use hues.

Designed to be biodegradable, recyclable, and freed from each BPA and lead, you can use it at gyms, marathons, and other athletic activities. This eco-aware bottle is perfect for selling environmental attention and is customizable. positioned your brand directly into your guests’ palms! SP20 – TRANSLUCENT 20 oz. sport BOTTLE F25F – FREEDOM BOTTLE WITH IN FUSER searching out a way to
IN FUSER searching out a way to boost your water? stay clean and hydrated all day long with our top notch Freedom Bottle with an infuser! This infuser is just what you need to feature extra taste to your water. add berries or citrus for your drinks and begin to sense refreshed with this 25 oz.

It is made with , biodegradable, and recyclable materials this is BPA and lead free. There are multiple shiny shades to pick out for displaying your agency, sanatorium, team, faculty name, logo, or slogan. Sip away at the same time as selling your emblem with this splendid Freedom Bottle! F25F – FREEDOM BOTTLE WITH INFUSER RCP –– RECYCLABLE click PEN give unswerving customers the present of going inexperienced with this stylish, eco friendly products, recycled clicker pen! This click on action cardboard pen is designed with a biodegradable cardboard barrel and an identical-coloured bamboo clip with plastic trim.

This pen not most effective promotes appropriate way to sell your brand.

add a charity or organization brand, message, hashtag, or marketing design to the barrel of the pen, and become a relied on pal in your clients and to the earth with this remarkable recycled cardboard clicker pen! RCP – RECYCLABLE click PEN RBP – BAMBOO click PEN in case you’re trying to make your brand’s photo eco-friendlier, you may it go incorrect with this promotional to make your brand’s photo eco-friendlier, you may it go incorrect with this promotional pen! This recyclable bamboo clicker pen with a clip is a great manner to reveal appreciation to your clients and the earth. it’s far designed with one hundred% bamboo emblem at the top with fashionable black trim and writes with German black ink. by using including a charity or employer emblem, ink.

by using including a charity or employer emblem, message, or promotional paintings, your emblem’s picture can be promoting environmental consciousness, protection campaigns, and different inexperienced causes. cross inexperienced or go home! RBP – BAMBOO click PEN  Wheat Flare Pen This pen is made from Wheat Straw Polypropylene and includes 50% less polypropylene than conventional pen. Composed of reclaimed stalks from wheat, our of reclaimed stalks from wheat, our wheat flare pen is a plunger-action style pen and is the precise promo product for any business! there’s no indication of extractable gluten in checking out.  Wheat Flare Pen need to check out more of our products?

Powdered Monkfruit Powdered Vanilla

Powdered Vanilla recipe is a short and smooth manner to show monk fruit sweetener into powdered sugar to apply as a sophisticated sugar-free replacement in your recipes. below are commands for a way to create powdered monk fruit or powdered vanilla monk fruit. each recipes are blanketed in single publish.  Of route, you can buy powdered monk fruit sweetener even though it is a touch pricier than monk fruit sweetener. with the aid of the manner, use as an alternative for icing sugar or powdered sugar.

Sprinkle on pinnacle of baked goods including tarts. certainly, I discovered this trick a long term in the past. besides, years in the past after I ran out of powdered sugar I without a doubt delivered it to the past after I ran out of powdered sugar I without a doubt delivered it to a blender and mixed it till it become powdered sugar. the primary recipe is Monk fruit Powdered Sugar. In short, it’s far a wonderful alternative for powdered sugar and makes incredible frostings or different items that use powdered sugar. Powdered Monk-Fruit | Vanilla Sweetener: In brief, I’ve used vanilla sugar all my life. Powdered Vanilla sugar has always been in my pantry. where did I buy it? IKEA, of route. In truth, IKEA has a whole segment of Swedish foods together with mustard, Swedish chocolate, and powdered vanilla sugar.

Vanilla Monk Fruit Powdered Sugar will certainly infuse any recipe with a touch of vanilla taste. They can be used simply as you’ll use powdered
They can be used simply as you’ll use powdered sugar. Use in recipes that recommend powdered sugar. Use in Swedish Pancakes, Dutch Pancakes, and many other recipes. In summary, be cautious whilst starting up the blender as regularly there is a large cloud of powdered sugar. consequently the best drawback is it could be messy. ensure to scrape out all of the powdered sugar. Amazon has  high powered blenders within the occasion you’re in need of 1.Powdered Monk fruit | Vanilla Sweetener Powdered MonkFruit:substances:3 cup monk fruit sugar guidelines: First, positioned monk fruit sugar in a high powered blender. Secondly, combination until a powder substance.

Be cautious whilst putting off the pinnacle of the blender as there might be a large cloud of powdered sugar. do away powdered sugar. do away with sugar and place into a pitcher jar with a lid and shop within the pantry. Powdered Monk fruit Vanilla Sugarelements:1 cup monk fruit sugar1 vanilla bean instructions: First, put monk fruit sugar in a high powered blender. 2d, blend till a powder substance. Thirdly, reduce the vanilla bean in half of by scraping out the vanilla caviar. subsequent, pour the powdered sugar into a glass jar with a lid. positioned the caviar and the reduce vanilla pod into the sugar and stir.

Leave the vanilla pod and seeds within the powdered monk fruit. permit sit down for 2 powdered sugar substitute, days. After days use monk powdered sugar use in any recipe. Don’t get rid of the vanilla pod. Print Pin No ratings but Powdered Monk fruit | Powdered Vanilla Recipes Powdered Monk fruit | Powdered Vanilla Recipes the way to make powdered monk fruit or vanilla sugar. Use as a substitute for powdered or icing sugars in recipes. path Seasonings cuisine Monk Fruit, Monk fruit, Powdered Sugar, Powdered Sugar replacement, subtle Sugar unfastened, Sweetener, Vanilla Sugar Prep Time three minutes general Time 3 mins Servings 122 servings calories 0kcal creator La Rena Fry Equipment High Powered Blender Ingredients Powdered Monk Fruit Sugar3 cups monk fruit sweetener Powdered Vanilla Monk Sugar1 cup monk fruit sweetener1 bean pod of Vanilla Get elements.

Powered by using Chicory Instructions Powdered Monk fruit Put monk fruit sugar in a excessive powered blender. combo until a powder substance. take away sugar and place into a pitcher jar with a lid and keep within the pantry. Powdered Vanilla Monk fruit Put monk fruit powder substance. Pour the powdered sugar into a tumbler jar with a lid. cut vanilla bean in half and get rid of the seeds from the pod by means of scraping out the vanilla caviar. area the caviar and the cut vanilla pod into the sugar and stir. depart the vanilla pod and seeds in vanilla. permit sit for two
use monk fruit powdered sugar use in any recipe.

Notes nutrition information based on 1 Teaspoon Servings Servings 122.0amount according to Serving calories zero% day by day cost *overall fat 0 g0 %Saturated fat 0 g zero %Monounsaturated fat 0 g Poly unsaturated fats zero g Trans fats zero g cholesterol 0 mg zero %Sodium zero mg zero %Potassium zero mg zero %total Carbohydrate 0 g zero %nutritional Fiber 0 g0 %Sugars zero g Protein 0 g0 %vitamin A zero %diet C zero %Calcium0 %Iron0 %* The percent day by day Values are based totally on a 2,000 calorie weight loss program, so your values may alternate relying on your calorie wishes. The values here
here might not be a hundred% correct because the recipes have not been professionally evaluated nor have they been evaluated via the U.S. FDA Nutrition Serving: 0g | energy: 0kcal | Carbohydrates: 0g | Protein: 0g | fat: 0g | Saturated fats: 0g | Polyunsaturated fats: 0g | Monounsaturated fat: 0g | Trans fats: 0g | cholesterol: 0mg | Sodium: 0mg
| Potassium: 0mg | Fiber: 0g | Sugar: 0g | nutrition A: 0IU | nutrition C: 0mg | Calcium: 0mg | Iron: 0 mg proportion

Guest Blog The Myth of Sustainability in High Street Fast Fashion Brands

Hey there, moral Fashionistas!

we’re proud to give a visitor weblog post by Cliodhna Connaugh every day. Cliodhna’s internet site Locked Down existence stocks fun, quirky snippets on what it’s want to spend lifestyles as a 20-some thing-year-antique on lockdown at some point of a international pandemic. on this post for Ethically tremendous, Cliodhna opinions the hypocrisy in the back of fast fashion the hypocrisy in the back of fast fashion manufacturers capitalizing on the sustainable label everyday generate more sales. within the realm of excessive street style, the story of sustainability started as a fleeting whisper inside the global panorama.

 That whisper became a ferocious roar whilst as a population, we sooner or later started out everyday comprehend the dire ramifications of our negative practices. From the comprehend the dire ramifications of our negative practices. From the cries of David Attenborough, the pleas of Greta Thunberg every day the wider outpours of protestations from weather activist companies, we day-to-day recognize that the climate disaster was now not something that could be neglected. thru nearer exam, one key practice that become contributing day-to-day the sort of disaster became the excessive road fashion enterprise and day-to-day the sort of disaster became the excessive road fashion enterprise and its shameless leveraging of the profitability surrounding sustainable style.

On this guest weblog put up featured on Ethically day-to-day,

I delve in daily a number of the most famous fashion brands and the way “sustainable” they may be. Gym Shark the primary brand to return beneath the sustainability magnifying glass is Gym Shark, a main fitness
sustainability magnifying glass is Gym Shark, a main fitness center/health brand from the United Kingdom. Gym Shark is a famous emblem having all started in a garage by a former Pizza Hut delivery motive force Ben Francis.  Gym Shark’s packaging is recyclable, the materials are absolutely vegan friendly, and that they have tasks in the pipeline day-to-day make their practices extra sustainable.

Make their practices extra sustainable. but, there may be nevertheless a chunk of work everyday do yet as regards to the apparel and leveraging greater recycled substances as the brand have recognized themselves. whilst efforts are being made within the brand day-to-day emerge as more sustainable by sourcing sustainable cot day-to-day, emissions produced on deliveries and face day-to-day rise in producing the products is a big issue. It isn’t clear what/if any efforts are and face day-to-day rise in producing the products is a big issue. It isn’t clear what/if any efforts are being made on this the front every day decrease emissions.

Finally, there may be no clear in whether or not the employees generating the objects do so in secure environments and obtain a first rate pay. Zara consistent with Good on you. eco, Zara does no longer Good on you. eco, Zara does no longer daily following through in its movements and meeting the objectives they have got set out for their projects everyday re-use garb and decrease greenhouse fuel emissions. A dwelling-salary for Zara’s supply-chain is non-existent, their commitments every day totally sustainable sourced apparel through 2025 do not look like making any progress progress and their eco friendly, clothing isn’t animal pleasant.

 Zara produces garments for a daunting 24 fashion seasons in step with 12 months with almost 20,000 designs according to annum. As featured in the Ethically brilliant’s pilot podcast episode (shameless plug), it has emerged at some the pandemic that as opposed to re-bundle and re-promote/re-motive returns garb, Asos was sending them immediately daily landfill because it become cheaper. it’s far safe day everyday with regards to all elements of sustainability that Zara is making little everyday no attempt everyday put into effect their alleged sustainability practices.

If a emblem like Asos with a similar enterprise version day-to-day Zara is engaging in such practices, how can we ensure that Zara
with a similar enterprise version day-to-day Zara is engaging in such practices, how can we ensure that Zara is not doing the same? what is particularly regarding, is Zara’s lack of tracing of animal products and dismiss for animal welfare in terms of the manufacturing in their clothing. at the packaging is recyclable, their detrimental practices in terms of getting 24 collections consistent with 12 months manner the fashion season turns over twice according to month in place of the standard Spring/summer time, Autumn/iciness fashion seasons.

Pretty Little element another popular fast style business enterprise is quite Little thing, owned by means of the discern business enterprise Boohoo p.c. put information how the emblem employs a guarded level of secrecy on the subject of its internal enterprise Boohoo p.c. put information how the emblem employs a guarded level of secrecy on the subject of its internal rules, in relation to its control of  shielding its garment people and suppliers for the duration of Covid-19. pretty Little component isn’t currently conducting sustainability and environmentally pleasant practices in terms of the overall operation of the commercial enterprise.

Good on you. eco depicts overall operation of the commercial enterprise.

Good on you. eco depicts that the usage of materials and the discount of the utilization of dangerous chemical compounds is non-existent. Boo Hoo Boohoo, any other popular speedy fashion emblem info a sustainability manual on their website everyday disperse how they may be enacting sustainability measures.

They cite garments daily charity and allow personnel every day purchase repurposed samples. moreover, they listing how their packaging is recyclable, returns are paperless, and they’re a member of the Sustainability apparel motion Plan. Having been accused of slavery within the summer of 2020 because it emerged, they were no longer paying their employees a honest salary, the Boo Hoo emblem have lots to reply for. with regards to their manufacturers, Boohoo have salary, the Boo Hoo emblem have lots to reply for. with regards to their manufacturers, Boohoo have a variety of noted measures in phrases of sustainability and recording greenhouse gas emissions in its direct operations however does now not do that for its wider deliver chain.

Moreover Good on you eco states that BooHoo are not the of materials in its clothes production.

All in all, these are handiest a sampling of the quick style enterprise. As verified, famous rapid style manufacturers have regulations in vicinity on the subject of sustainability and environmental impact. what’s lacking is the real implementation of those practices in the workings of the enterprise. objectives, dreams, and initiatives set with the aid dreams, and initiatives set with the aid of these businesses appear everyday be superficial and absence right movement.

It appears that a key factor every day exchange those groups is retaining those brands accountable for their inactiveness and blasé mindset daily the climate disaster.

Grab Eco Friendly Clothing Styles

Eco-friendly Clothing

In our now not-so-natural anymore world I ask myself this query plenty: how a lot technology will we actually need and want in our lifestyles to live higher?

it’s miles a very thrilling question. Nano-generation fascinates many by using binding debris like silver, with its antibacterial properties, with common materials possibly for our advantage. but there also are extreme fighters of that generation with valid issues about feasible fitness risks. as the owner of herbal garb employer, I stumble upon much of various and frequently very interesting statistics, which does now not have a clear cut answers.

Take as an instance the chinese Hebei Metals & Minerals Corp, a producer of fiberglass insulation, mineral wool and calcium silicate insulation. these merchandise make an natural individual like me shiver… however allow’s look. The enterprise is exploring other hi-tech applications as manufacturing and sale of the anti-electromagnetic radiation cloth, anti-static cloth and eco-friendly clothing. Their anti radiation material changed into utilized by for astronauts.

Holistic human beings confirmation

As many holistic human beings verify, there is a growing subject about the consequences of electromagnetic wave (microwave) and accelerated through it cellular temperature on human organisms. as a result the concept of anti-electromagnetic radiation material was born, protecting 99.ninety nine percentage of harmful electromagnetic waves.

Hebei different direction of research entails  clearly going on substances like bamboo material & silver, then spinning and weaving together. The result is an anti-bacterial fiber, which keeps its homes with washing, solar and so forth. On a surface, feels like natural product. Is it?

Eco-Friendly Clothing

Exchange fabric options

ok, my actual query is: can we in reality protect ourselves from unwell outcomes of technology with the aid of increasing our use of the technology itself? Are we playing seize-22 with ourselves?

Hemp, bamboo, even soy have inherent anti-bacterial residences serving us, as in case of hemp for thousands of years. properly, does it guard from electromagnetic waves? Who knows… I know the vibrations of natural fibers do growth our well-being, consciously or subconsciously.

while you placed on bamboo yoga apparel, eco-friendly Products your frame registers something, a vibe of goodness, a breath of alleviation. maybe an answer is a “middle route”: we restrict the offensive forces in surroundings, whilst we work like crazy to develop and manner natural fibers organically. If we rapid sufficient we might repair a number of the harm to our earthly home and ourselves. What do you suspect?

Atomic Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki – SJ Environmental Justice

In August 1945, after four years of World War II, United States B-29 bomber, dropped the atomic bomb over the cities of Hiroshima on August 6th, 1946.

70.000  people died in 9 seconds, and the city of Hiroshima was leveled. 3 days later a second bomb was dropped  Nagasaki, Japan with the same devastating results. The bombing killed over 129.000 people.

This is the only use of a nuclear weapon in the history, and the justification of the bombing is still debated. It was the most devastating bomb that humanity invented

The bomb released a cataclastic load of energy. Death was instant. The ones who were close enough to see the blast lost their eyes. It was the last thing they ever saw.The bright light of the blast blinded them. The black of their eyes, the retina, melted away. The radiation received by the body is equivalent of today’s thousands of X-rays. The human body can’t absorb unlimited radiation. It falls apart because the cells are dying of radiation poisoning. If the radiation is intense enough, it looks like a burn. Layers of the skin begin to fall off. The bodies vital function began to slow down until it stops.

People exposed to a lower dose of radiation and who were not killed immediately died later by multiple forms of cancer.

The bomb wiped out 90% of the city. In the four months after the bombing, the acute effect of it killed 146.000 people in Hiroshima and around 80.000 people in Nagasaki. They died of the effect of the bombing burns, radiation sickness, and other injuries.

The following week of the devastation Japan’s Emperor announced his decision to surrender over the radio.

Was the decision to drop a new weapon wise from the USA?

Was the decision of dropping the second bomb, even before Japan had time to formulate its response justified?

The struggle of debating if the atomic bombing used against civilian targets provokes more questions about the morality of the bombing and nuclear arms in general.

We are more concerned about the effect of the bombing on the environment.


I do not own the rights to this video track, nor its audio track, its uploaded for educational reasons only, knowledge is free

There was a difference between the two bombs dropped over Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The one dropped in Hiroshima called “ little boy”  was smaller 1200 ft in diameter but the damage made was huge.  70% of the buildings in the city were destroyed 140.000 people killed.  The temperature at explosion reached  7200 degrees Fahrenheit. At this temperature, all the flora and fauna are destroyed. The fire propagated beyond d this line. The environmental impact its hard to be determined since anything that could flee would have.

The one dropped 3 days later in Nagasaki was named “fat man” and was slightly larger The blast created fireball almost 2 kilometers in diameter. Also reached around 7000 degrees Fahrenheit, with the same  effect on the environment, in this case, the fire was restrained a little by the hill terrain

Little boy used Uranium-235, with the half-life of  700 million years,  Fat man had Plutonium-239. With the life of 24,000 years. Once these bombs touched the ground, the effects will be there for a long time.

The effect of the exposure to radiation can be of 2 kinds. Immediate effect is killing cells, and damages tissues, The long scale effect include cancer, scars, cataracts, chromosome changes, etc

The most frequent type of cancer that rised between the survivors in the first 2-3 years was leukemia. The children’s were the most affected. Other forms of cancer appeared around year 10 after the attack. At this time, a tumor registry was created for both cities not to treat the victims but to collect data about the radiations and the rising cases of cancers.

1000 units of absorbed radiation can cause the annihilation of the bone narrow, drop in white cell counts, anemia, bleeding. Most of the victims would die in 30 days. At 10.000 units of radiation absorbed immediate disorientation and coma appear.

The estimated units of absorbed radiation in Hiroshima was 10.300 units and in Nagasaki was 25.100 units.

By 1975,  1,838 cases were diagnosed as leukemia in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Other forms of cancer that were rising in numbers were: Thyroid cancer mostly diagnosed in women, first discovered by autopsy, breast cancer, and Lung cancer. By 1972 were 3,778 lung cancers diagnosed.

Acute radiation signs like loss of hair, bleeding tendency, and inner mouth lesion, mental retardation were noted in 25% of newborn survivors of the pregnant women that survived the attack.Also, genetic mutations can also reduce reproductive capacity and cause changes in the appearance of the baby, such as extra limbs.

Allied Occupation of Japan imposed a strict code for the press,  on news reports and publication of all research about the atomic bombings. The purpose was to maintain public order and suppress anti-U.S. feelings Hiding public reports about the number of deaths and damages also made it easier in the U.S., to get approval for further nuclear arms development.

70 years after the bombings, most people who survived the bombing died. The study started to focus on the children born from the survivors of the bomb who had been exposed to radiation in utero. Studies showed that the number of cases of cancer was not rising in comparison with the children who survived the attack

Are Hiroshima and Nagasaki still radioactive? NO, they are not. The residual radioactivity following a nuclear explosion was scattered in the atmosphere, but some fell onto the city after 30-40 minutes from the explosion as black rain. Today the level of radioactivity can be barely notable. The radiation level in Hiroshima and Nagasaki is the same as the natural radiation present anywhere on Earth. It is not enough to affect human health, because the bombs exploded so far above the ground, the long lasting effects of the poisoning radiation were small. Most of the radioactivity disappeared in a few days of the detonation

Today, the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki are a positive example of the human capacity to reborn.

The Shrinking of Aral Sea – SJ Environmental Justice

                             The Aral Sea was the 4th largest lake in the world before 1960 with 26.300 sq miles, when the rivers that were making it, were diverted by the Soviet Union.
    The translation of the name “Aral Sea” is the Sea of Islands because the lake is situated between Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan and it had over 1000 islands that once were dotting the lake.
    The two rivers the Syr Darya and the Amu Darya fed by the snowmelt from the mountains and precipitations were diverted to transform the desert of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan, into cotton farms and other crop farms like cereals, rice, and melons.

    The construction of the irrigation canal started in 1940, but it was poorly constructed allowing the water to leak and evaporate.

    The Aral Sea was an endorheic lake, which is a lake formed by the accumulation of water from rain, melting snow or ice ending up in a lower elevation point. An endorheic lake allows no flow to other external bodies of water and can only disappear by evaporation because the bottom of the lake it’s occupied by a salted ground.

    By 1960, 14.4 mi qu of water were going to the land instead of the lake.
    From 1961 to 1970 the Aral Sea level fell an average of 7.9 in a year
    In 1970, the number tripled to 20-24 in per year. By this time the lakes surface shronk with 60%.
    In 1980, ’s the Aral Sea was losing 31-35 in of water every ear.
    The amount of water taken from the river has doubled between 1960-2000. In the same time cotton production double.
    By 1998, the lakes area dropped from 26.000 sq mi to 11.076 sq mi.
    By 2004, The Aral Sea was only 6.630 sq mi just 25% of its original size, and a salinity level five times higher which have killed all the natural flora and fauna
    In 2007, the lake shrink to 10% of it’s original size with a salinity 10 times greater then regular water.

    The irrigation did made the desert bloom, but they destroyed the Aral Sea. The fisheries and the communities that were depending on them collapsed The water of the lake became polluted by fertilizers and pesticides. The dust from the exposed lakebed became a public health hazard because it was contaminated agricultural pesticides. The salty and contaminated dust was blown from the dried up lakebed to the field and crops damaging the soils quality. The affected lands were in need of a large quantity of rivers water.

The lake had been divided into four parts. Northen part, southern part, eastern part, and the western part. By 2009, the southern part completely disappeared, and the western part had retreated to a thin strip.

    By 2014, the Eastern part of the lake was also completely drowned up. Now it’s just a desert.

The dam was finished in 2005 and by the end of 2008 the water level has risen 39ft and the salinity of the lake dropped. The lake was again populated with fish in such a number that fishing became viable.

    The disappearance of the Aral Sea was no surprise to the Soviet Government as the lake was doomed from the first day. It was a five year plan wich could not be contradicted by anyone because it was approved by the government and the executive committee of the Soviet Union political parties.
    The Aral Sea was considered an error of nature and the evaporation of the lake was considered inevitable.

    Every living organism in the Aral Sea and the islands dotting the lake was nearly destroyed mostly because of the high salinity level. All the dust remained from drained up lake, is now poisoned with chemicals, pesticides and salt. All these poisoned sand is picked up and carried by the wind to the surrounding area. The population living in this area struggles with the lack of fresh water, high rates of cancer, lung disease, tuberculosis, digestive disorders, anemia, infection diseases are very common in the area. Every 75 of 1000 newborn dies and 12 of every 1000 maternity death are common.

Yann Arthus-Bertrand / Earth from Above / UNESCO

Before 1960, the fishing industry in the Aral Sea was booming. It was producing one-sixth of the Soviet Unions total fish catch.     Today the fishing towns along the original shoreline are just a graveyard for abandoned ships, that lie on dried land once covered with water, miles away from today’s shore of the lake.

Over the year were a few environmental solution proposed. Some of them are: 1. improving the quality of the irrigation canals 2. installing desalinization plants 3. charging farmers to use the water from the river 4. using other cotton species that requires less water 5. promoting non-agricultural economic development in the upstream countries 6. using fewer chemicals on the cotton. 7. replacing cotton with other crops 8. installing dens to fill the Aral Sea 9. redirecting water from other rivers to fill the Aral Sea

10. pumping sea water from the Caspian Sea via a pipeline and diluting it with fresh water from the local catchment area.

      In January 1994, the 5 countries surrounding the Aral Sea signed an agreement to give 1% of their budget to help recover the Aral Sea.
    The objectives of the agreement are: – Stabilize the environment of the Aral Sea. This phase began in 1992, until 1997 the involvement of the World Bank. Because it focused on improving the land around the Aral Sea and not the irrigation system, it was considered inefficient – Rehabilitate the disaster around the lake With the lack of integration with the local community involved, the second phase wich lasted 5 years wasn’t too successful either. After all these failed attempts to resolve the problems, another plan was put together in 1997. The target of this plan was to improve the current irrigation system and the management of the local water. – Improve the management of the international waters of the areal sea

– To build the capacity of the institution supervising the agreement at the regional and national level

In March 2000, The second World Water Forum in Hague presented by Unesco was criticized because of the unrealistic goals.

    In the last attempt to save the Aral Sea, in 2005 Kazakhstan built a dam between the Northen and Southern part of the lake that separated them. Over the years the southern part completely disappeared.
    With the southern part left to disappear, all the water coming from the Syr Darya river will stay in the Northen part. Between 2005 and 2006 the results of the dam started to show as the water in that part of the lake rebounded significantly and a slight increase is also visible over the next years.

    With the help of the Satelite images taken by Nasa, we can see the disappearance of the lake over time.

         The dam had a positive effect over the Aral Sea. The level risen, the salinity decreased, and the lakes fish stock returned

          In 2009, Kazakhstan received a loan from the World Bank for the construction of a Second Dam. The construction started in 2011, and the results are visible as the Northen part of the Aral Sea wich lies in Kazakhstan is slowly revised.
    The Southern Part of the Aral Sea is deemed for disappearance. The country who’s land is lying on, Uzbekistan shows no interest in abandoning the irrigation source for the cotton fields. Instead, Uzbekistan is focused on oil and gas exploration from the dried lakebed.
    As os June 1, 2010, 500.000 cubic meters of gas were extracted from the former Aral Sea lakebed.

    The shrink of Aral sea was called one of the worst planet’s environmental disasters because the whole region was destroyed. A one’s prospering fishing industry was destroyed. The results are unemployment, pollution, economic hardship and public health problems.


The Great Smog of 1952 – SJ Environmental Justice

On December 5, 1952, the world’s romance with London’s fog ended in disaster. The real extent of wich was never being acknowledged. Air pollutants from the use of coal, combined with an anticyclone, windless condition and cold weather, formed a thin layer of smog over the city of London.

Cold weather for London’s residents meant the increasing need to burn more coal then usual to keep warm in houses. The coal people were using was an inferior quality as the government focused on exporting the good quality coal to pay off his depth. The low-grade coal increased the sulphur dioxide in the smoke that added to the coal-fired power station in London increased the level of pollution.

The anticyclone settled over London one day before the disaster and caused a temperature inversion, the cold air being trapped under a layer of warm air.This has resulted in a dense fog wich mixed with the chimney smoke, vehicle exhausts and other pollutants filled with sulphur, formed a persistent smog. Also, the absence of the wind prevented the smog to be dispersed.

At the time of the event, it wasn’t considered a significant event, even if it caused major disruption due to the effect of visibility.

“Nelson’s Column during the Great Smog of 1952” by N T Stobbs.

The public transportation has ceased because the visibility was reduced drastically making difficult, even impossible to drive. Roads were filled with abandoned cars and concerts were cancelled due to total darkness. The only public transport remained alive was in Underground. The ambulance service stopped functioning. The gasping people were walking to the public hospitals. The lips of the dying people were blue. Most of them died suffocated.

The smog related fatalities were mainly from pneumonia, tuberculosis, bronchitis, and heart failure. Some died from cardiac distress and asphyxiation. Non-fatal smog effects included: chest pain, lung inflammation and diminished breathing ability, permanent lung damage and asthma attacks. The smoge was so toxic that there were reports of choked to death cows in the fields.

By December 8th, 4 703 people died and thousands become ill because the effect of smog on the human respiratory system

Most of the victims were very young or elderly or with preexisting respiratory problems. The officials were blaming the weather at that time. That was the official release of the fact of 1952, but recent research and new documents found reveal how one of the world’s peace time catastrophes claimed as much as 12000 lives in the center of London.

London has had smoke events in the past but the one from December 5th, 1952 is considered the worst air pollution event in the United Kingdom’s history.  It was the most significant regarding its effect on environmental research, government regulation and public awareness.

Due to the events of 1952 new regulations were implemented restricting of use of dirty fuels in industry and banning black smoke.

New environmental legislations such the Clean Air Act from 1956 and the Clean Air Act of 1968 led to the reduction in air pollution.

These acts banned emission of black smoke and forced residents of the urban area and factories to convert to smokeless fuels.

Thanks to these pollution legislation and the widespread use of central heating in houses and offices the black smog in Britain became a thing of the past, but efforts will need to continue to counter air pollution and protect the environment for future generations.

The Barnett Shale Drilling Disaster – SJ Environmental Justice

First of all, let me begin by clarifying what The Barnett Shale is. The Barnett Shale is a geological formation consisting in sedimentary rocks that underlie under the Dallas- Ft Worth Metroplex. 5.000 miles long portion of rocks sitting under 17 counties. The productive portion of the shale is under Johnson, Tarrant, and Dallas counties. It’s considered as being the largest producible reserve of natural gas found on shores of the United States. Also, oil has been found here but in smaller quantities.

Because gas was hard to extract so it can be produced in commercial quantities the gas and oil companies use hydraulic fracking; The hydraulic fracturing is a technique that fractures the rocks with pressurized liquid.


The high-pressure injection of the hydraulic liquid ( a mix of water, sand, and thickening agents) produces breaks in the rock formation. The gas, petroleum, and sodium chloride ( salty water) will flow freely through these cracks. The hydraulic fracturing was introduced in 1947 and used by millions of oil and gas wells.The hydraulic fracking is a controversial subject. In many countries, the fracking was already banned but the advocate of it sustain that the economical gain received from the approachable hydrocarbons are an critical factor for not to be banned in the United States. The potential environmental impact can’t be ignored either. The risk of water and ground contamination, air pollution, noise pollution, public health problems, and earthquakes are growing problems associated with fracking.

A major part of the formation is under the urban area of Dallas- Ft Worth. Ideas like drilling in the public parks, so the local governments may obtain royalties if any minerals are found, or seeking compensations for the damage roads caused by overweight trucks from the local trucking companies, are discussed frequently. Most of the roads in the area are not designed to sustain the high traffic of the heavy duty equipment, and they are destroyed, so the local government is seeking for compensation from the drilling companies.


From 2002 to 2010 the Barnett Shale was the most productive shale in the U.S. In 2010 there were 14.000 wells in the Barnett Shale and 3.000 more got new permits in the same year. In January 2013, the Barnett Shale produced over 4 billion cubic feet of gas each day which represented almost 7 % of all the natural gas produced in the United States. The first company drilling wells in the Barnette area was Mitchel Energy in 1981, but the first successful and cost effective drill was made in 1998. After 1998 competitors realized that, the gas can be extracted profitably, so they started buying leases. By 2008, the landowners that had wells on their land were paid bonuses between $500 and $69.000/ ha

The cleanup costs of the toxic byproducts of drilling may not be worth the tax revenue and the environmental effects of the contaminated drinking water, air pollution from natural gas compression.

The question on the mind of the people that are getting sick every day and the one that live with the fear of another earthquake every day is if it’s worth it? The state of Texas claims that the law banning the fracturing in the area will destroy jobs and claim they found no reason of concern. But people are fighting with unexpected rashes, pneumonia, sharp headaches, sinus infections that won’t heal, or other autoimmune disease are all triggered by the exposure to natural gas.

New information related with the risk of living in the proximity of a well surface out every year. Measurements taken found spikes in the number of toxins such as benzene which can cause leukemia and congenital heart defects in newborns.

The Barnett shale region is considered the largest running experiment about what it means for people when the land they are living on is flooded with wells and heavy equipment. The wells are tucked near schools, homes, parks, hospitals, many times less than 200 feet away. 6.000 sources of toxic emission from the wells and heavy equipment are cramped in the metropolitan area of Dallas- Ft Worth.

In 2009, over 1300 people filed complaints about the air quality. Only 2% of this complaints were followed up with violation notice, 94% were closed without any violation, and the rest of the 2% were referred to other agencies.
The primary agency who should control the situation and keep an eye on the air quality and make sure that the oil and gas industry respects the rules, the TXEQ, doesn’t cares about the health of the public. In 2007, they raised the amount of benzene considered to be acceptable level of exposure, doubled it, when the World Health Organization guidelines explicitly say that no level of exposure to benzene is recommended.

In 2009 agency employees discover that the benzene level was over the already released level in a third of the sites were testing was made.The only measure taken was prompting those sites to repairs.

Concerns were raised about this problem, but the answer received from TCEQ was not surprising. They considered that “the emission from natural gas operation in the area haven’t significantly affected the ambient level of air toxins like benzene.” An employ of TCEQ filed an internal fraud complaint. The quality ensurance manager said that TCEQ after following up with a public complaint with a more sensitive equipment found the level on benzene above the agency guidelines but didn’t let the city know about it, trying to hide the problem.

Scientist study chemicals one at the time, they do not study them as a mix of chemicals like those near the shale. The benzene itself is cancerogenic. Butadiene, another toxic cancerigene linked to leukemia, Tohien causes dizziness and headache; xylenes causes respiratory and cardiovascular problems. There are many more on the long list of toxic chemicals found at the Barnette Shale of which effect it’s not even known.

Fracking leaves a path of polluted water, poisoned air, destroyed landscape. It is an environmental and public health catastrophe in making. It comes with substantial price paid starting with cleaning up the polluted water to reconstruction of the damaged roads. These expenses are not covered by the drilling industry; they will come out of public money. The oil and gas industry needs to be held responsible for damages they are causing to people’s health and to the environment.

To clean up drinking water pollution is expensive so it’s not even attempted. Temporary replacement water supplies or increasing water treatment systems are other additional costs that can add up to millions of dollars.

Health problems associated to fracking, due to air contamination from trucks, equipment and wells are also an important factor to consider. The NIOSH warned the workers that they could have an enormous risk of developing the lung disease silicosis caused by inhalation of silica dust at fracking sites. Fracking is also a contributor to the ozone smog and global warming.

The costs of fracking are hitting hard on the health care system. In 2007, $50 million were spent for medical cost due to increasing number of silicosis. We are loosing inestimable natural sources by turning forests and farm in industrial zones occupied by well pads. Killing the habitat of wild animals in the areas where wells pop up will result in a decrease of the animal population.

The taxpayers pay the costs for repairing the damages roads. The state of Texas approved $40 million in funding only for road repairs in the Barnette shale region. The damage caused to the roads by the trucks that deliver water for only 1 well causes so much damage on the road as it would over 3 million car trips on the same road. Another severe and costly problem are the abandoned wells. There are thousands of them from the past fossil fuel boom. Expenses with recapping the abandoned wells will be covered most probably with the taxpayers money. The fracking is affecting the sale price of the nearby homes. Houses that had a previous value around $250.000 sell with up to 15% less after wells pup up within 1.000 miles of it



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